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Glossary

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1

16 CFR Part 1632 search for term

CPSC-administered mattress flammability standard issued pursuant to the Flammable Fabrics Act that requires new mattresses sold in the United States (including Puerto Rico) to resist ignition from a smoldering heat source (such as a lit cigarette).

16 CFR Part 1633 search for term

CPSC-administered mattress flammability standard issued pursuant to the Flammable Fabrics Act that requires mattresses sold in the United States (including Puerto Rico) to resist ignition from an open-flame heat source (such as a lit match, lighter or candle).

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A

Adaptive Reuse search for term

Renovation of a building or site to include elements that allow a particular use or uses to occupy a space that originally was intended for a different use.

Air Pollution search for term

Contaminants or substances in the air that interfere with human health or produce other harmful environmental effects.

Alternative Energy search for term

Usually environmentally friendly, this is energy form uncommon sources such as wind power or solar energy, not fossil fuels.

Alternative Fuels search for term

Not petrol or diesel but different transportation fuels like natural gas, methanol, bio fuels and electricity.

American Humane Certified search for term

a voluntary, fee-based service available to producers of animals in agriculture. The program provides independent, third party audited verification that the care and handling of animals on enrolled farms meet the animal welfare standards set forth by American Humane Certified. Producers who meet the standards may use the American Humane Certified label on their products. Certifies wool products are produced humanely. Annual independent on-site audits of more than 200 science-based standards and measures conducted by Professional Animal Auditor Certified Organization (PAACO) trained and certified auditors. Online Compliance Resources to provide regular mandatory audit updates, and monitoring throughout the year. State-of-the-art, web-based independent video monitoring that provides 24/7, real-time monitoring and instant alerts of potential problems to the producer and American Humane

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) search for term

oversees the creation, promulgation and use of thousands of norms and guidelines that directly impact businesses in nearly every sector. ANSI is also actively engaged in accrediting programs that assess conformance to standards–including globally-recognized cross-sector programs such as the ISO 9000 (quality) and ISO 14000 (environmental) management systems. Many sustainability standards have been taken through ANSI accredited consensus processes, including some product-specific standards and several national green building standards.

ANSI standards A208.1 and A208.2 search for term

Recommended by EPA at www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/formald2.html. CPA 1-02 requires the formaldehyde limits applying only to raw particle Board and raw medium density fiberboard (MDF) before assembled into finished product of: 0.30 ppm for industrial products, 0.20 ppm for building products, 0.30 ppm for Medium Density Fiberboard MDF.

Antimicrobial search for term

An agent that kills microbes.

ASHRAE - American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers search for term

Founded in 1894, is an international organization of 51,000 persons. ASHRAE fulfills its mission of advancing heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration to serve humanity and promote a sustainable world through research, standards writing, publishing and continuing education.

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B

Bake-out search for term

Process by which a building is heated in an attempt to accelerate VOC emissions from furniture and materials.

Bill of Lading search for term

A document establishing the terms of contract between a shipper and a transportation company to move freight from one point to another for a specific charge. The shipper often prepares the bill of lading on forms issued by the carrier (GFTN, 2005).

bio-based product search for term

1. commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) composed in whole or in significant part of biological products, forestry materials, or renewable domestic agricultural materials, including plant, animal, or marine materials.
2. product that meets the requirements of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Biobased Products Procurement Program.
Source: 7 CFR § 2902.2 (2011).
USDA promotes the use of biobased products by both the federal government and consumers. The program uses radiocarbon analysis to distinguish between contemporary carbon input and carbon derived fossil-based input, and recognizes products based on levels of contemporary carbon input.
Source: 7 CFR § 2902.7(c) (2011).

bio-based product search for term

1. commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) composed in whole or in significant part of biological products, forestry materials, or renewable domestic agricultural materials, including plant, animal, or marine materials.
2. product that meets the requirements of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Biobased Products Procurement Program.
Source: 7 CFR § 2902.2 (2011).
USDA promotes the use of biobased products by both the federal government and consumers. The program uses radiocarbon analysis to distinguish between contemporary carbon input and carbon derived fossil-based input, and recognizes products based on levels of contemporary carbon input.
Source: 7 CFR § 2902.7(c) (2011).

Biodegradable search for term

Waste material composed primarily of constituent parts that occur naturally, are able to be decomposed by bacteria or fungi, and are absorbed into the ecosystem. Wood, for example, is biodegradable, while plastics are not.

biodegradeable search for term

term used to describe a product or package that will completely break down and return to nature, i.e., decompose into elements found in nature within a reasonably short period of time after customary disposal. The Federal Trade Commission’s current Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims (the so-called “FTC Green Guides”) require that such claims be substantiated by competent and reliable scientific evidence and qualified to the extent necessary to avoid consumer deception about: (1) the product or package's ability to degrade in the environment where it is customarily disposed; and (2) the rate and extent of degradation.
Source: 16 C.F.R. § 260.6.
The FTC has proposed that the term “a reasonably short period of time” be interpreted to mean no more than one year.
Source: Proposed Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 63,552 at C(4)a, p. 70, Oct. 15, 2010, “FTC’s Proposed Revisions to Green Guides.”

Biodiversity search for term

Also, biological diversity. The variety of living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, as well as the ecological complexes of which they are part. This includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems (CBD, 2007B).

Biomass search for term

Plant matter such as trees, grasses, agricultural crops or other biological material. It can provide a renewable source of electrical power, fuel, or chemical feedstocks.

Building Envelope search for term

The exterior surface of a building's construction - the walls, windows, roof and floor. Also referred to as building shell.

Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) search for term

Software program developed by the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). It is aimed at designers, builders, and product manufacturers. It provides a way to balance the environmental and economic performance of building products. BEES measures the environmental performance of building products by using an environmental life-cycle assessment approach specified int he latest versions of ISO 14000 draft standards. All stages in the life of a product line are analyzed: raw material acquisition, manufacture, transportation, installation, use, and recycling and waste management.

Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA) search for term

a non-profit organization that develops voluntary product and industry standards that support safe, healthy and sustainable environments; publishes key industry statistics; and advocates for legislation and government regulation. BIFMA International and NSF International have released a consensus based sustainability standard that allows manufacturers to certify products and earn recognition. The standard includes criteria for evaluating materials selection and usage; energy and atmosphere; human and ecosystem health; and social responsibility impacts. A corresponding product certification program also exists called “level”. It is a product labeling program based on the ANSI/BIFMA e3-2011e Furniture Sustainability Standard.

By-product search for term

Material, other than the principal product, generated as a consequence of an industrial process or as a breakdown product in a living system.

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C

CA/DHS/EHLB/R-174 search for term

Standard Practice for the Testing of Volatile Organic Emissions from Various Sources Using Small-Scale Environmental Chambers.

California Section 1350 Special Environmental Requirements Sec. 1.3 B search for term

This level is determined so not to penalize wood as a product and takes into account documented approximate 30 ppb natural background levels of formaldehyde in wood by the Australasia Plywood Association http://www.plywoodassn.com.au/pdf/form%202.pdf, and provides a 3 ppb margin of safety. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2004 reclassified formaldehyde from a probable to a known carcinogen.

CARB search for term

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) created a new regulation called California's Formaldehyde Air Toxic Control Measure. Staring January 1, 2009, California will begin regulating the formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products (particleboard, MDF, and hardwood plywood) sold in the state or used to make finished goods offered for sale in the state. All products containing composite wood products must comply with the new regulation. To find CARB-complaint mills, visit: http://www.arb.ca.gov/toxics/compwood/tpc/listofmills.htm

Carbon Footprint search for term

usually stands for a certain amount of gaseous emissions that are relevant to climate change and associated with human production or consumption activities.

carbon neutral search for term

Over its life cycle, a product or process that does not add more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere

carbon offset search for term

An organization's carbon footprint is the amount of carbon emitted from energy usage. This can be used to gauge the level of responsibility an organization must accept for its impact on the environment, and is an indication of how much carbon offsetting must take place to become carbon neutral.

Carbon Sequestration search for term

The different processes through which carbon is removed from the atmosphere and stored in soil, biomass, geological formations and oceans.

Carbon Sink search for term

Carbon dioxide is naturally absorbed by things such as oceans, forests and peat bogs. These are called carbon sinks.

Carbon Tax search for term

A charge on fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) based on their carbon content. When burned, the carbon in these fuels becomes carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, a significant greenhouse gas.

Carcinogen search for term

Any substance capable of causing cancer.

CARE - Carpet America Recovery Effort search for term

A joint industry-government effort to increase the amount of recycling and reuse of post-consumer carpet and reduce the amount of waste carpet going to landfills. CARE was established as a result of a Memorandum of Understanding for Carpet Stewardship (MOU), a national agreement signed by members of the carpet industry, representatives of government agencies at the federal, state and local levels, and non-governmental organizations. The mission of CARE is to facilitate the carpet industry lead initiative to find market driven solutions to the diversion of post-consumer carpet from landfills to meet the time sensitive goals of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Carpet Stewardship.

CertiPUR - US ® search for term

a voluntary testing, analysis and certification program for flexible polyurethane foam developed by members of the global foam industry in response to an increase in substandard imported foams. CertiPUR-US® tests for durability, content and indoor emissions. CertiPUR-US® is an extension of the European CertiPUR® program developed in 2002 by EUROPUR, the association of European flexible polyurethane foam block manufacturers. Home furnishings items, such as upholstered furniture and mattresses, that carry the CertiPUR-US® seal contain flexible polyurethane foam products that have been tested and certified by an independent laboratory to meet specific criteria for physical performance, indoor emissions and environmental stewardship.

CFL - Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs search for term

Fluorescent lamps are more efficient than incandescent light bulbs of an equivalent brightness. This is because more of the energy input is converted to usable light and less is converted to heat (allowing fluorescent lamps to run cooler).

Chain-of-Custody (CoC) search for term

The systematic tracking of wood-based products from their origin in the forest to their end-use.

chemicals of concern search for term

a chemical that makes a significant contribution to one or more of the following life cycle impact categories: 1) persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT); 2) reproductive toxicant; 3) carcinogen; and/or 4) endocrine disruptor.
Source : BIFMA e3-2008, § 3.5 Furniture Sustainability Standard.

chemicals of concern search for term

a chemical that makes a significant contribution to one or more of the following life cycle impact categories: 1) persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT); 2) reproductive toxicant; 3) carcinogen; and/or 4) endocrine disruptor. Source: BIFMA e3-2008, § 3.5 Furniture Sustainability Standard.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) search for term

Stable, artificially created chemical compounds containing carbon, chlorine, fluorine and sometimes hydrogen. Chlorofluorocarbons, used primarily to facilitate cooling in refrigerators and air conditioners, have been found to deplete the stratospheric ozone layer which protects the earth and tis inhabitants from excessive ultraviolet radiation.

Clearcutting search for term

A timber harvesting method that involves the removal of standing trees in a given area (ACF, 2006).

climate change search for term

The term 'climate change' is sometimes used to refer to all forms of climatic inconsistency. The term more often used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. In some cases 'climate change' has been used synonymously with the term 'global warming'.

climate change search for term

The term 'climate change' is sometimes used to refer to all forms of climatic inconsistency. The term more often used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. In some cases 'climate change' has been used synonymously with the term 'global warming'.

climate change search for term

The term 'climate change' is sometimes used to refer to all forms of climatic inconsistency. The term more often used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. In some cases 'climate change' has been used synonymously with the term 'global warming'.

Closed-loop Recycling search for term

When a used product is recycled into a similar product; a recycling system in which a particular mass of material (possibly after upgrading) is remanufactured into the same product (e.g., glass bottles into glass bottles).

CO - Carbon Monoxide search for term

A colorless, odorless and highly toxic gas commonly created during combustion. Because it is impossible to see, taste or smell the toxic fumes, CO can kill you before you are aware it is in your home. At lower levels of exposure, CO causes mild effects that are often mistaken for the flu. These symptoms include headaches, dizziness, disorientation, nausea and fatigue. The effects of CO exposure can vary greatly from person to person depending on age, overall health and the concentration and length of exposure.

CO2 - Carbon Dioxide search for term

A naturally occurring greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. It is emitted naturally through the carbon cycle and through human activities like the burning of fossil fuels. Natural sources of CO2 occur within the carbon cycle where billions of tons of atmospheric CO2 are removed from the atmosphere by oceans and growing plants, also known as "sinks," and are emitted back into the atmosphere annually through natural processes also known as "sources," When in balance, the total carbon dioxide emissions and removals from the entire carbon cycle are roughly equal. Since the Industrial Revolution in the 1700‚ human activities, such as the burning of oil, coal and gas, and deforestation, have increased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. In 2005, global atmospheric concentrations of CO2 were 35% higher than they were before the Industrial Revolution. For more information on CO2 trends in the atmosphere, visit the page on Atmosphere Changes.

Composting search for term

A process whereby organic wastes, including food and paper, decompose naturally, resulting in a produce rich in minerals and ideal for gardening and Farming as a soil conditioner, mulch, resurfacing material, or landfill cover.

Conservation search for term

Preserving and renewing, when possible, human and natural resources. The use, protection and improvement of natural resources according to principles that will ensure their highest economic or social benefits.

Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) search for term

charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of injury or death from thousands of types of consumer products under the agency's jurisdiction. The CPSC is charged with protecting consumers and families from products that pose a fire, electrical, chemical, or mechanical hazard or can injure children. CPSC laws impacting mattress manufacturers include CPSC 1633 and 1634 flammability testing requirements and the new CPSIA lead and phthalates testing requirements.

Consumer Products Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA) search for term

signed into law on August 14, 2008, set new content requirements and other requirements for certain children’s products.
Source: Codified at 15 U.S.C. §§ 2051−2089, October 18, 2008 version.
Lead
For children’s products sold on or after August 14, 2009, no component may contain more than 300 parts per million (ppm) of lead. (The lead limit may be reduced to 100 ppm by August 14,
2011, if technologically feasible.) The law defines a children’s product as a consumer product designed or intended primarily for children 12 years of age or younger. In addition to the lead content limits noted above, the law requires that certain components be tested for lead content and that such testing information be included on the certificates of conformity that manufacturers are already required to issue with their products with regard to Part 1632, 1633 and other applicable standards (if any). The CPSC, however, has stayed enforcement of these new lead testing and certification requirements until February 10, 2011. This stay will allow the CPSC (and possibly Congress) time to clarify a number of complex issues involved with enforcing the new lead content provisions. It is important to understand that the CPSC’s stay DOES NOT apply to the lead content requirement itself, and does not affect a manufacturer’s existing obligation to meet other lead content limits set in 16 CFR part 1303 (discussed below). The CPSIA has exempted from the lead content limits and the lead testing/certification
requirements internal mattress components that are physically inaccessible to a child and certain fabrics, fibers and other components.
Specifically, CPSC regulation 16 CFR Part 1500.91 exempts the following textile materials:
(i) Natural fibers (dyed or undyed) including, but not limited to, cotton, kapok, flax, linen, jute, ramie, hemp, kenaf, bamboo, coir, sisal, silk, wool (sheep), alpaca, llama, goat (mohair, cashmere), rabbit (angora), camel, horse, yak, vicuna, qiviut, guanaco;
(ii) Manufactured fibers (dyed or undyed) including, but not limited to, rayon, azlon, lyocell, acetate, triacetate, rubber, polyester, olefin, nylon, acrylic, modacrylic, aramid, spandex.
Aside from textiles that contain dyed fibers, the CPSC's regulation notes that textiles with "after-treatment applications, including screen prints, transfers, decals, or other prints" are excluded from this exemption. Other exemptions from the CPSIA lead requirements that could be relevant to mattress producers include wood, paper and similar materials made from wood or other cellulosic fiber, and certain types of printing inks. Note that these exemptions will not apply if a material, component, or product is altered in a way that may introduce lead in excess of the content limit to the product. The combined impact of these exemptions will save mattress manufactures thousands of dollars in testing and compliance costs. The CPSC is conducting a separate rulemaking to define testing and certification procedures for components in children’s products that do not qualify for these exemptions. The CPSC has issued an enforcement policy for the lead requirements which details how the Commission will initially use its enforcement discretion to implement these new rules. For those products and components that must be tested for lead, the CPSIA requires manufacturers to use a CPSC-accredited third party or in house testing labs. The CPSC has released its criteria for obtaining accreditation.
See also: list of accredited labs.
Phthalates
A second requirement that also took effect on February 10, 2009, bans the use of certain categories of phthalates in “child care articles." (It is unclear at this time whether a mattress designed or intended for use by children three years of age or younger is a child care article for these purposes). A "child care article" may not contain more than 0.1% of DEHP, DBP, and BBP, which are banned on a permanent basis, or DINP, DIDP, and DnOP, which are banned pending further review. Like lead, the phthalates provision requires manufacturers to use a CPSC-accredited third party or in-house lab to meet testing and certification requirements. Like lead, the CPSC has advised that physically inaccessible parts in finished products are exempt from the testing requirement. Also in February 2009, the CPSC requested public comment on whether a mattress (and several other products) intended for children three and under is used to " facilitate sleep." ISPA submitted comments to the CPSC requesting that the agency find that mattresses are not child care articles for these purposes. If the CPSC determines that a mattress does not meet this definition, the new phthalates requirements would not apply to that product. At this time, the CPSC has not ruled on ISPA’s request.

Contaminant search for term

Any physical, chemical, biological or radiological substance or matter that has an adverse effect on air, water or soil.

Cradle to Cradle search for term

a book written by William McDonough and Michael Braungart. It is a manifesto calling for the transformation of human industry through ecologically intelligent design.
Also,
a design protocol that advocates the elimination of waste by recycling a material or product into a new or similar product at the end of its intended life, rather than disposing of it.

Cradle to Cradle Certification search for term

Intensive product certification for environmentally-intelligent design that serves as a nutrient for the earth or a technological nutrient at the end of the product life program. It evaluates and certifies the quality of products based on Cradle to Cradle Design principles by measuring their positive effects upon the environment, human health and social equity.

cradle-to-gate search for term

Cradle-to-gate is an assessment of a partial product life cycle from manufacture ('cradle') to the factory gate, i.e. before it is transported to the user or consumer. The use phase and disposal phase of the product are usually omitted. Cradle-to-gate assessments are sometimes the basis for environmental product declarations.

cradle-to-grave search for term

A manufacturing model, dating to the onset of the Industrial Revolution, which describes the process of disposing of a material or product via landfill, incineration, etc., at the end of its presumed useful life.

CREL/OEHHA search for term

Chronic Exposure Level- established by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment

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D

DEA Free search for term

Does not contain DEA (diethanolamine), a substance linked to cancer in animal studies.

Decay Rate search for term

Math function that reflects the declining emissions of a product over time.

Demand-side Waste Management search for term

Process whereby consumers use purchasing decisions to communicate to product manufacturers that they prefer environmentally sound products packaged with the least amount of waste, made from recycled or recyclable materials, and containing no hazardous substances.

dematerialization search for term

Reducing the total material that goes toward providing benefits to customers. This may be accomplished through greater efficiency, the use of better or more appropriate materials, or by creating a service that produces the same benefit as a product

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E

Eco3Home search for term

an American Home Furnishings Alliance (AHFA) program that provides a roadmap for home furnishings companies to create a corporate culture of conservation and environmental stewardship. The first level is an environmental management system implemented at the facility level called Enhancing Furniture’s Environmental Culture (EFEC). It results in improved management of resources and raw materials; reduced energy and water consumption; reduced waste disposal and increased recycling. The second level extends the corporate culture of conservation and environmental stewardship throughout a company’s global supply chain and is called Sustainable by Design (SBD). It targets four key areas: environmental impact of the supply chain, global climate impact, overall environmental footprint and social responsibility. The third and final level is a product registration program resulting in the companies being able to use the Eco3Home hangtag. It requires manufacturers to provide safety, health and environmental information for each piece or collection of registered product.

ecological footprint search for term

a measure of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems. The carbon footprint is an element of the ecological footprint.

Ecological Footprint search for term

The metric that allows us to calculate human pressure on the planet and come up with facts, such as: If everyone lived the lifestyle of the average American we would need five planets.

Ecological Integrity search for term

The healthy functioning of biological organisms within the ecosystem they inhabit.

emission search for term

The release of any gas, particle, or vapor into the environment from a commercial, industrial, or residential source including smokestacks, chimneys, and motor vehicles.

Emissions Cap search for term

A limit placed on companies regarding the amount of greenhouse gases it can emit.

Endemic Species search for term

Species that live exclusively in certain areas and do not exist anywhere else (IUCN, 2006).

energy intensity search for term

The entire amount of energy required to produce a product as a ratio of that product.

energy recovery search for term

Simply put, obtaining energy from waste. This is accomplished through a variety of processes, and is also known as “waste-to-energy.” Traditionally, this meant burning waste products, but now gasification and anaerobic digestion are also playing a role.
Also see waste-to-energy

Engineered Wood search for term

Also known as composite woods, engineered woods are manufactured by binding wood particles or fibers with adhesives to meet specific design requirements. Uses of engineered woods are often similar to those of solid wood (Composite Panel Assocaition, 2007). Engineered wood products include plywood, oriented strand board and fiberboard.

environmental footprint search for term

The environmental impact any company or entity makes as it performs any activity. A footprint is determined by how well raw materials or by-products are (or aren’t) absorbed by the surrounding environment.

Environmental Footprint search for term

For an industrial setting, this is a company's environmental impact determined by the amount of depletable raw materials and nonrenewable resources it consumes to make its products, and the quantity of wastes and emissions that are generated in the process. Traditionally, for a company to grow, the footprint had to get larger. Today, finding ways to reduce the environmental footprint is a priority or leading companies.

environmental impact search for term

Any change to the environment, good or bad, that wholly or partially results from industrial/manufacturing activities, products or services.

environmental impact areas search for term

energy consumption, greenhouse gas (CO2-eq) production, toxicity and natural resources depletion are some of the key environmental impact areas.

Environmental Management System search for term

The part of the overall management system that includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy.

Environmental Management Systems (EMS) search for term

A set of processes and practices that enables an organization to reduce its environmental impacts and increase operational efficiency (EPA, 2007).

Environmental Policy search for term

Is a statement by the organization of its intentions and principles in relation to its overall environmental performance, which provides a framework for action and for the setting of its environmental objectives and targets.

environmental product declarations (EPDs) search for term

quantified environmental data for a product with preset categories of parameters based on the ISO 14040 series of standards, but not excluding additional environmental information.
Source: ISO 14025. In short, EPDs are eco-labels that disclose environmental performance of products and services over their life cycle. EPDs address and declare information about: 1) manufacturing-what raw materials, other resources and energy are used and what emissions are generated? 2) distribution- is a significant amount of energy used getting the product to market? 3) use- does the product consume energy and water when used, or does it generate emissions? 4) end-of-life- can the product be reused, recovered or recycled, or if it goes to landfill, what is its environmental impact? EPDs present qualified environmental data based on information from a life cycle assessment (LCA) conducted according to the ISO standards for LCA (ISO 14025).

EPA - Environmental Proctection Agency search for term

An independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment.

Exotic Species search for term

A species that exists in the free state in an area but is not native to that area. (IUCN, 2007A).

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F

Federal Trade Commission (FTC) search for term

created in 1914 to prevent unfair methods of competition in commerce. The FTC now has greater authority to police anticompetitive practices. In 1938, Congress passed a broad prohibition against “unfair and deceptive acts or practices.” Since then, FTC also has been directed to administer a wide variety of other consumer protection laws. In 1975, Congress gave the FTC the authority to adopt industry-wide trade regulation rules. FTC’s jurisdiction includes issuing guidance to prevent deceptive environmental marketing claims, which has been issued in the form of the FTC’s Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims or “Green Guides.”

Fiberboard search for term

An engineered wood made of wood fibers or particles bonded together with wax and adhesives. Fiberboards include particle board, medium-density fiberboard, high-density fiberboard and hardboard depending on the density of the particles.

Flagship Species search for term

A species that can be used to anchor a conversation campaign because it arouses public interest and sympathy (Simberloff, 1998).

Forest Concession search for term

Generally speaking, a forest concession is a contract between a forest owner and another party allowing the management and harvesting of wood resources from a given area (Gray, 2002).

Forest Conversion search for term

When natural forests are converted to highly cultivated forests typically with an increased focus on wood production, and decreased enviornmental benefits.

Forest Land-Use Change search for term

Also called Deforestation - where forests are being converted from natural forests to other land uses (agriculture, cattle ranching, urbanization, etc). Such land-use change may or may not be legal and can result in forested ares that do not have the prospect of being sustainably managed.

Fracking search for term

Also known as hydraulic fracturing or hydrofracking, fracking is a process in which a fluid is injected at high pressure into oil or methane gas deposits to fracture the rock above and release the liquid or gas below. The process and its aftermath has generated controversy because of harm to drinking water and health where it has been used.

Free Prior Informed Consent (FPIC) search for term

ILO's Convention 186 (ILO, 1998), defines FPIC as "the right of communities to exercise control, to the extent possible, over their own economic, social and cultural development." The principles FPIC are evolving through international debate to help define and require appropriate consultation and consent. A full discussion can be found in Herz et al., 2007.

FSC search for term

(Forest Stewardship Council) An international organization promoting responsible stewardship of the world's forests through certificates for forest management and chain of custody administered by third party auditors.

FTC ’s Green Guides search for term

more formally known as the FTC’s Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims, specifically address the application of Section 5 of the FTC Act, which protects against unfair methods of competition or deceptive acts affecting commerce,
Source: 5 U.S.C. §§41, 58, as amended.
The Green Guides apply to environmental claims included in labeling, advertising, promotional materials and all other forms of marketing, whether asserted directly or by implication, through words, symbols, emblems, logos, depictions, product brand names, or through any other means, including marketing through digital or electronic means, such as the Internet or electronic mail.
Source: 16 C.F.R. § 260.2.
The Green Guides were first issued in 1992 to help marketers ensure that the claims they are making are true and substantiated. The Guides were revised in 1996, 1998, and another proposed revision came out in 2010. The guidance they provide includes: 1) general principles that apply to all environmental marketing claims; 2) how consumers are likely to interpret particular claims and how marketers can substantiate these claims; and 3) how marketers can qualify their claims to avoid deceiving consumers.

FTC ’s Proposed Revisions to Green Guides search for term

FTC issued proposed revisions to the Green Guides on October 6, 2010, including changes designed to strengthen the FTC’s guidance on those marketing claims that are already addressed in the current Guides as well as to provide new guidance on marketing claims that were not common when the Guides were last reviewed.
Source: Proposed Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 63,552, Oct. 15, 2010.
New guidance addresses many areas including marketers’ use of product certifications and seals of approval, renewable energy claims, renewable materials claims, and carbon offset claims. The Proposed Rule also includes discussion on use of the terms natural and organic.

Fuel Cell search for term

A technology that uses an electrochemical process to convert energy into electrical power. Often powered by natural gas, fuel cell power is cleaner than grid-connected power sources. In addition, hot water is produced as a by-product.

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G

gate to gate search for term

a partial LCA looking at only one value-added process in the entire production chain

general environmental claim (e.g. “ environmentally friendly ,” “ eco - safe ,” “ eco - friendly ,” “ green ,” etc.) search for term

type of unqualified claim that the Federal Trade Commission discourages from use in product advertising or promotion because it is difficult, if not impossible, to substantiate and can imply deceptive environmental claims. Instead, qualifications regarding environmental claims should be clear and prominent, and should limit the claim to a specific benefit.
Source: Proposed Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 63,552 at A(4), p. 48-54, Oct. 15, 2010, “FTC’s Proposed Revisions to Green Guides”

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) search for term

An organism that, through human intervention in a laboratory, has had it genetic code deliberately altered. Genetic modification may be used to alter any of a wide range of traits (Alberta Forest Genetic Resources Council, 2007)

Geothermal Energy search for term

Heat that comes from the earth.

Global Organic Textiles Standards (GOTS) search for term

a standard developed to define world-wide recognized requirements about the organic status of textiles, from post-harvest handling of the raw materials, through environmentally and socially responsible manufacturing and labeling. Its purpose is to provide credible assurance to the consumer that a finished product is “certified organic.” To achieve GOTS certification, a product must meet one of its definitions for organic products and be certified by an independent third-party certification organization approved by the GOTS International Working Group (IWG). Licensing and labeling are governed by the GOTS IWG. GOTS can be used to certify a finished product as “certified organic” if 95% of the product’s ingredients (by weight) are certified organic and the manufacturer is in compliance with other GOTS requirements. GOTS also allows a claim of “made with x% organic material...” if 70% or more of the product’s ingredients (by weight) have been certified organic and the manufacturer, likewise, is compliant with other requirements

global warming search for term

A process that raises the air temperature in the lower atmosphere due to heat trapped by greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs and ozone. Applied to the warming predicted to occur as a result of human activities. (i.e. emissions of greenhouse gases)

GOTS search for term

Global Organic Textile Standard - The aim of the standard is to define requirements to ensure organic status of textiles, from harvesting of the raw materials, through environmentally and socially responsible manufacturing up to labelling in order to provide a credible assurance to the end consumer.

Green Design search for term

A design, usually architectural, conforming to environmentally sound principles of building, material and energy use. A green building, for example, might make use of solar panels, skylights, and recycled building materials.

Green e-Power search for term

An independent renewable energy certification and verification program allowing consumers to quickly identify environmentally superior energy options, also used by businesses to communicate the purchase and/or generation of certified renewable energy.

Green Housekeeping Seal of Approval search for term

categories for the Green Good Housekeeping Seal now include cleaning and beauty products, paints and coatings, appliances, paper goods, and food and beverages; eventually the Green Good Housekeeping Seal will be introduced in more categories, including building products, home appliances, consumer electronics, textiles, and children's products. The seal was introduced in 2009 by Good Housekeeping magazine and the Good Housekeeping Research Institute (GHRI). A product must first be evaluated by the scientists and engineers at GHRI and earn the Good Housekeeping Seal. It then must meet the environmental performance requirements to earn the Green Good Housekeeping Seal. Reduction of water use in manufacturing, energy efficiency in manufacturing and product use, ingredient and product safety, packaging reduction, and the brand's corporate social responsibility are among the factors considered.

GREENGUARD search for term

(GREENGUARD Environmental Institute) Improving public health and quality of life through programs that improve indoor air. In accordance with that mission, GEI currently has three third-party certification programs.

GREENGUARD® Certified search for term

Performance based standards to define goods with low chemical and particle emissions for use indoors, primarily building materials, interior furnishings, furniture, cleaning and maintenance products, electronic equipment, and personal care products. GREENGUARD® certifications include the testing and certification of mattresses. GREENGUARD has three levels of certification–“Indoor Air Quality”, “Children & Schools” and “Select”. The Select certification program is a pilot program and includes stringent levels of emission reductions.

greenhouse effect search for term

The warming of the earth's surface and lower atmosphere as a result of carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere, which results in an increase in temperature.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions search for term

Emissions of gases related to human activities that accelerate the "greenhouse effect" The term greenhouse effect describes the natural heat-trapping qualities of trace gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Human activities have significantly increased the concentrations of natural greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. While carbon dioxide is not the only greenhouse gas, it is the main contributor to warming. Other important greenhouse gases include nitrous oxide and methane, both of which have increased in the last century.

greenhouse gases search for term

The most important greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons and ozone.

greenwash search for term

the act of misleading consumers regarding the environmental practices of a company or the environmental benefits of a product or service

Greenwash search for term

The act of misleading consumers regarding the environmental practices of a company or the environmental benefits of a product or service.

Greywater search for term

waste water that does not contain sewage (such as from the shower) and can be reused for irrigation after filtration.

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HP2 - Healthy Products, Healthy Planet search for term

Healthy Products Healthy Planet (HP2) offers a comprehensive assessment of all green products and services markets associated with the environment, sustainability, personal health & wellness, fitness, alternative medicine, and natural/organic products. Major product groups analyzed include consumer products, consumer durable goods, industrial products, industrial services and recycled materials. The report consists of 48 individual segments quantified in terms of consumer sales from 2002-2007 with forecasts out to 2012. Inside HP2 Report: The HP2 market is at the nexus of two major trends - environmental sustainability and health & wellness - and includes all products and services sold to benefit the environment or promote personal health. The report contains analysis and forecasts for 5 major categories and 48 subcategories, including: * Consumer products like organic food and fitness equipment * Consumer services like complementary & alternative medicine and ecotourism * Industrial equipment like water filtration and wind power systems * Industrial services like environmental consulting and waste management * Sales of recycled material * Emerging categories like green building, sustainable timber and hybrid cars

Hydroelectric Energy search for term

Electric energy produced by moving water such as from tidal power or from rivers using turbines.

Hydrofluorocarbons search for term

Used as solvents and cleaners in the semiconductor industry, among others; experts say that they possess global warming potentials that are thousands of times greater than CO2.

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Indicator Species search for term

Species that define a characteristic of trait of the environment. Indicator species are used to assess the condition of an environment because they are often more sensitive than other species to environmental changes.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) search for term

An approach to enhancing crop and livestock production based on an understanding of ecological principles. Chemical pesticides are used only when biological and cultural control methods and available technologies fail to keep pests below acceptable levels and when assessment of associated risks and benefits indicates that the benefits of the use of chemicals outweigh the costs (SPIPM, 2007).

Invasive Species search for term

Species which are non-native to the ecosystem under consideration, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, environmental, or human health harms (NISIC, 2007).

IPCC search for term

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is the leading body for the assessment of climate change, established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic consequences. The IPCC is a scientific body. It reviews and assesses the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change. It does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate related data or parameters. Thousands of scientists from all over the world contribute to the work of the IPCC on a voluntary basis. Review is an essential part of the IPCC process, to ensure an objective and complete assessment of current information. Differing viewpoints existing within the scientific community are reflected in the IPCC reports.

ISO 14001 search for term

http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards/management-standards/iso14000.htm - "ISO (International Standard Organization) 14001 gives the requirements for an environmental management system (EMS), which is a tool for helping organizations to implement good environmental practice and to aim for continual improvement of their environmental performance." For example, the ISO 14000 family of standards addresses areas like greenhouse gas accounting and life cycle analysis.

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Kenaf search for term

A plant related to cotton and okra that can be used as alternative fiber for paper-making (Vision Paper, 2007)

Kilowatt-hours (kWH) search for term

Used to measure electricity and natural gas usage.

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Lacey Act search for term

U.S. Lacey Act, 16 U.S.C. §§ 3371-3378, a long-standing wildlife trafficking statute, protects both plants and wildlife by creating civil and criminal penalties for a wide array of violations. Most notably, the Act prohibits trade in wildlife, fish, and plants that have been illegally taken, possessed, transported or sold. Thus, the Act underscores other federal, state, and foreign laws protecting wildlife by making it a separate offense to take, possess, transport, or sell wildlife that has been taken in violation of those laws. In May 2008, The U.S. Congress amended the to include trade in products made from illegally harvested wood.

LCA search for term

LCA is one of the first steps needed for sustainable product certification to establish the baseline for quantified environmental improvements and is required by FTC Environmental Marketing Guides and Attorney General Green Guides for any broad environmental claim, i.e., environmentally friendly, green, environmentally preferable or sustainable. These requirements are based on truth in advertising law. Consumers believe these products are environmentally beneficial in all respects and thus the only accepted, standardized way of doing this is by conducting an ISO Compliant LCA. Accordingly, LCA or actual supplier environmental data are required for sustainable product certification on a product platform basis. LCA identifies 12 environmental benefit / impacts of products for all product stages: extraction, transportation, use, and final disposition or reuse. These 12 impacts are: Global Warming, Acidification, Ozone Depletion, Eutrophication, Photochemical Smog, Human Health, Ecological Toxicity, Fossil Fuel Depletion, Habitat Alteration, Criteria Air Pollutants, Water Intake, Solid and Hazardous Waste. Also required are Pollutant Flows (Flue Gas and Wastewater); Recovered Matter; Other Air Emissions; Other Water Effluents. http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/std/lca/lca.html

LEED search for term

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design-Promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in five key areas of human and environmental health: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection, and indoor environmental quality.

life cycle analysis (LCA) search for term

The assessment of a products full environmental costs, from raw materials to final disposal, in terms of consumption of resources, energy and waste - 'from the cradle to the grave'

Life Cycle Assessment search for term

LCA is one of the first steps needed for sustainable product certification to establish the baseline for quantified environmental improvements and is required by FTC Environmental Marketing Guides and Attorney General Green Guides for any broad environmental claim, i.e., environmentally friendly, green, environmentally preferable or sustainable. These requirements are based on truth in advertising law. Consumers believe these products are environmentally beneficial in all respects and thus the only accepted, standardized way of doing this is by conducting an ISO Compliant LCA. Accordingly, LCA or actual supplier environmental data are required for sustainable product certification on a product platform basis. LCA identifies 12 environmental benefit / impacts of products for all product stages: extraction, transportation, use, and final disposition or reuse. These 12 impacts are: Global Warming, Acidification, Ozone Depletion, Eutrophication, Photochemical Smog, Human Health, Ecological Toxicity, Fossil Fuel Depletion, Habitat Alteration, Criteria Air Pollutants, Water Intake, Solid and Hazardous Waste. Also required are Pollutant Flows (Flue Gas and Wastewater); Recovered Matter; Other Air Emissions; Other Water Effluents.

life cycle impact search for term

the total impact of a system, function, product or service from the extraction of raw materials through its end-of-life management.
Source: EPA

Life-cycle search for term

Means the total impact of a system, function, product or service from the extraction of raw materials through its end-of-life management.

Living Wage search for term

Living wage is a term used to describe the minimum hourly wage necessary for a person to achieve some specific standard of living. this standard generally means that a person working forty hours a week, with no additional income, should be able to afford a specified quality or quantity of housing, food, utilities, transport, health care, and recreation. This concept differs from the minimum wage in that the latter is set by law and may fail to meet the requirements of a living wage. Calculator available at http://livingwage.mit.edu/

LOHAS search for term

LOHAS is an acronym for Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability, a market segment focused on health and fitness, the environment, personal development, sustainable living, and social justice.

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material intensity search for term

The total amount of material needed to produce a product as a ratio of that product.

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Natural search for term

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) cites the following:

The Textile Products Identification Act defines a “natural fiber” as “any fiber that exists as such in the natural state.”
Source: Proposed Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 63,552 at VI(B), p. 128-144, Oct. 15, 2010, “FTC’s Proposed Revisions to Green Guides.”

The U.S. Department of Agriculture defines “natural” meat and poultry as “a product containing no artificial ingredient or added color” and which “is only minimally processed.”
Source: Proposed Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 63,552 at VI(B), p. 128-144, Oct. 15, 2010, “FTC’s Proposed Revisions to Green Guides.”
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines “natural flavor or natural flavorings” as substances containing the flavoring constituents derived from specified items, such as spices, fruits, vegetables, herbs, plant materials, meat, seafood, and eggs. The FDA informally considers “natural” to mean that nothing artificial or synthetic (including colors regardless of source, including the addition of beet juice) is included in, or has been added to, the product that would not normally be expected to be there.
Source: Proposed Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 63,552 at VI(B), p. 128-144, Oct. 15, 2010, “FTC’s Proposed Revisions to Green Guides.”
Given the difficulties in developing a definition of “natural” that would be appropriate in multiple contexts beyond the fiber and food categories, the FDA and the FTC have declined to establish a general definition of this term. Likewise, the FTC states that it lacks a basis to provide general guidance on the use of the term. Nevertheless, the agency states that in theory a marketer may use the term, provided that, as with all environmental marketing claims, the marketer can substantiate the environmental benefit claimed, including implied claims. The FTC cautions that adequate substantiation is especially important to the extent that reasonable consumers perceive “natural” claims as general environmental benefit claims or comparative claims.
Source: Proposed Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 63,552 at VI(B), p. 128-144, Oct. 15, 2010, “FTC’s Proposed Revisions to Green Guides.”
See also: general environmental claim and substantiation of claim

NMI - Natural Marketing Institute search for term

A leading business consulting and market research firm within the world of health and wellness.

Non-renewable Resources search for term

Natural resource such as coal, gas, or oil that, once consumed, cannot be replaced. Most energy resources currently in use are non-renewable while the renewable ones (such as wind and solar power) remain largely untapped.

Non-Wood Forest Products (NTFP) search for term

All forest products except timber. Non-wood forest products include other materials obtained from trees such as resins and leaves, as well as other plant and animal products such as mushrooms, berries, medicinal herbs, game, etc. (FAO, 2007A).

nonrenewable energy search for term

Energy derived from sources that cannot be replenished in a short period of time relative to a human life span. Non-renewable sources of energy are typically divided into two types: fossil fuels and nuclear fuels. Fossil fuels include oil, natural gas, and coal. Nuclear involves uranium.

Nontoxic search for term

Ingredients pose no health risk

NSF International search for term

an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides standards development, product certification, auditing, education and risk management for public health and the environment. NSF International is an accredited, third-party certification body that tests and certifies products to verify they meet these public health and safety standards. Products that meet these standards bear the NSF Mark. The NSF Sustainability division offers a range of sustainable business solutions, including standards development and certification for green products such as carpet, flooring, fabrics and other building materials; and process verification services such as greenhouse gas verification, environmental footprinting, and environmental management systems registrations

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OEKO - TEX search for term

organization that sets globally uniform test criteria for safe use of chemicals in textiles, tests textiles during and after manufacturing processes, and certifies textiles as ecologically safe for humans. Standards are Oeko-Tex Standard 100 (products), Oeko-Tex Standard 1000 (processes), and Oeko-Tex Standard 100Plus (combined product and process requirements). Oeko-Tex Standard 100 certification can be pursued for textiles and finished mattresses.

OEKOTEX search for term

OEKOTEX sets globally uniform test criteria for safe use of chemicals in textiles, tests textiles during and after manufacturing process and certifies textiles as ecologically safe for humans.

Offsetting search for term

the process of reducing carbon emissions by 'offsetting' it. An example is by taking a flight and in compensation paying a company to plant trees to equal the carbon use out.

Oil search for term

Fossil Fuel used to produce petrol ect and other materials such as plastics

Old growth forests search for term

A forest that has originated through natural succession and maintains significant portions of dead wood and old trees. A multi-layered structure is often present and the forest may be at climax (mature) stage (Lund, 2007).

Organic search for term

1. (specific to U.S. food/fiber) marketing label that indicates that the food or other agricultural product has been produced and certified under the authority of the U. S. Department of Agriculture National Organic Program (NOP) using approved methods that integrate cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.
Source: USDA.
Also, the primary goal of organic agriculture is to optimize the health and productivity of interdependent communities of soil life, plants, animals and people.
Source: 7 CFR 205. 2. (specific to finished textile products)
Marketing label that denotes finished textile products that have earned certification under the Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS). GOTS ensures the organic status of textiles, from harvesting of the raw materials, through environmentally and socially responsible manufacturing up to labeling to provide credible assurance to the consumer.
Source: GOTS.
It is important for marketers to use caution when approaching use of the term “organic.” Using an organic label on a product requires understanding of complex distinctions between certifying organizations to ensure that marketers do not contribute to consumer confusion around the term organic. For instance, the NOP allows marketers to identify specific organic fibers in textile products and use of statements identifying the percentage of organic fibers. However, most finished textile products (including mattresses) cannot use the USDA organic seal or imply that the finished product is certified by NOP. The NOP seal is reserved for use by those that farm or harvest the crop or livestock and that meet the NOP requirements for certification. For products that require additional manufacturing and processing of the organic fibers, a third-party organization has been recognized by NOP—GOTS—for certification of those finished products.
The NOP’s May 20, 2011 Policy Memo (PM) titled “Labeling of Textiles that Contain Organic Ingredients” (revised October 31, 2011), provides clarification on use of the term organic and states that, “Textile products that are produced in accordance with the Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) may be sold as organic in the U.S. but may not refer to NOP certification or display the USDA organic seal.”
Source: PM 11-14 Labeling of Textiles that Contain Organic Ingredients Rev02 10 31 11.
Textile manufacturers and a limited number of mattress manufacturers have been successful in achieving GOTS certification and earning the opportunity to market their finished product as organic or certified organic through GOTS, which has its own nuances related to marketing and using the GOTS label and seal.
Source: GOTS.
Manufacturers of most finished products, including mattresses, that do not earn GOTS certification for the entire product may not refer to the entire product as an "organic" product, but may reference the type(s) of organic fiber, together with the percentages of the specific organic fiber(s) that are contained in the finished product.
Source: PM 11-14 Labeling of Textiles that Contain Organic Ingredients Rev02 10 31 11.
While the FTC examined the term organic in its recent “Proposed Revisions to Green Guides,” they did not add instruction on labeling beyond referring readers back to the NOP. Therefore, ensuring proper substantiation of claims around use of the highly regulated term “organic,” requires careful consideration of the requirements of the previously mentioned certification and labeling organizations. One retailer that mistakenly advertised a mattress containing organic cotton fiber as a “USDA organic” mattress in its store catalog and its advertising was the subject of a complaint and NOP investigation.
Source: Complaint Case NOPC-107-10, resolved 4-4-11.
The investigation resulted in the store having to remove all such claims and provide substantiation that the crop components used in the mattress had indeed been certified as organic by NOP.
The mattress store was warned that future violations of the NOP regulations could result in civil penalties of up to $11,000 per violation. Since this complaint was resolved, NOP has recognized GOTS and provided clarifications on how to properly market textile products giving marketers better resources for ensuring that they will not be in violation of these strict marketing requirements.

Oriented strand board search for term

An engineered wood made from strands of wood in specific orientations bonded together with was and adhesives. Oriented strand board has similar properties to plywood but is less expensive.

Ozone Layer search for term

In the upper atmosphere about 15 miles above sea level it forms a protective layer which shields the earth from excessive ultraviolet radiation and occurs naturally.

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Photovoltaic Panels search for term

Solar panels that convert sunlight into electricity. Power is produced when sunlight strikes the semiconductor material and creates an electrical current.

Phytosanitary Certificate search for term

A document often required by governments for the import of non-processed plant products. Depending on the state or country, export products should meet certain sanitary standards related to storage pests, plant diseases, chemical treatment and weeds (GFTN, 2005).

Plastic search for term

man-made durable and flexible synthetic-based product. Composed mainly of Petroleum.

Post Consumer Waste search for term

The waste collected after the consumer has used and disposed of it. Types of Post consumer waste include: * packaging * parts that are not needed, such as fruit skins, bones in meat, etc. * undesired things received, e.g.: o advertising material in the mailbox o a flyer received in the street without having the opportunity to refuse o dust, weed, fallen leaves, etc.

post-consumer recycled material search for term

materials that have been recovered or otherwise diverted from the solid waste stream after consumer use.
Source: FTC’s FTC’s Green, 16 C.F.R. § 260.7(e).

pre - consumer recycled materials search for term

materials that have been recovered or otherwise diverted from the solid waste stream during the manufacturing process, excluding spilled raw materials and scraps that undergo only a minimal amount of reprocessing and are normally reused in the original manufacturing process.
Source: FTC’s Green, 16 C.F.R. § 260.7(e)

product category rules (PCRs) search for term

a set of rules for developing an environmental product declaration for a given product category and that determine the scope, boundaries, functional unit, assessment criteria, product and environmental performance information, etc., that all manufactures must use to help ensure consistency with regards to data, calculations and methodology. PCRs are introduced in ISO 14025.
Source: ISO 14025.

Public Statement Regarding Your Sustainability search for term

To finish the SFC verification process your company or organization must have a statement in the public sector (web site, letterhead, brochures, publicity materials, etc) explaining your commitment to sustainability. This statement must be submitted to the verification specialist

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qualification search for term

a clear, prominent and understandable use of language and relative type size in proximity to an environmental marketing claim intended to prevent potential confusion or deception.
Source: FTC’s Green Guides, 16 C.R.F. § 260.6 (a).

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Reclamation/Reuse search for term

Reclamation is a service provided by suppliers, manufacturers, or retailers who accept or buy back materials or products from their customers. Reuse is an important part of a product’s life and prevents harmful incineration or landfilling. Reuse substantially reduces climate pollution, saves energy, and eliminates the product extraction stage, and can lessen impacts from the manufacturing stage.

recyclable search for term

identifies material that can be collected, separated, or otherwise recovered from the solid waste stream for reuse, or in the manufacture or assembly of another package or product, through an established recycling program.
Source: FTC’s Green Guides, 16 C.R.F. § 260.7(d).
The FTC’s Green Guides state that proper qualification of a recyclable marketing claim may or may not be necessary under the following circumstances. Last updated January 26, 2012
8 www.sleepinformation.org
Marketer may make an unqualified recyclable claim if a “substantial majority” of consumers/communities have access to recycling facilities
Marketer should qualify recyclable claim (e.g. package may not be recyclable in your area) if only a “significant percentage” of consumers/communities have access to recycling facilities.
Marketer should qualify recyclable claim (e.g. product is recyclable only in the few communities that have recycling programs) if less than a “significant percentage” of consumers/communities have access to recycling facilities.
Sources : Proposed Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 63,552 at E(3), pp.90-95, Oct. 15, 2010 , (“FTC’s Proposed Revisions to Green Guides").

recycled content search for term

materials recovered or otherwise diverted from the solid waste stream, either during the manufacturing process (pre-consumer), or after consumer use (post-consumer) that are used in a new product. Spilled raw materials and scraps that undergo only a minimal amount of reprocessing and are normally reused in the original manufacturing process (as opposed to being diverted from the solid waste stream) do not qualify as recycled content. See also: pre-consumer and post-consumer recycled content.
Source: FTC’s Green Guides, 16 C.R.F. § 260.7(e).

renewable search for term

a material that is replenishable and replenished on some reasonable time scale,including but not limited to wood, fibers, plant-based plastics, and biobased fuels.
Source: paraphrased from BIFMA e3-2008 Furniture Sustainability Standard § 3.39.
FTC states that renewable material should be quantified (what it is, how it is sourced, why it is renewable). For product that contains less than 100% renewable materials (excluding minor, incidental components), quantify the percent renewable.
Source: Proposed Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 63,552 at VI(B), p. 148-151, Oct. 15, 2010, “FTC’s Proposed Revisions to Green Guides.”

Renewable energy search for term

A renewable energy source is defined as any energy source that is replenishable and replenished on some reasonable time scale. Renewable energy sources include, but are not limited to wind, solar, heat from the earth's interior, oceans, rivers, and eligible biomass. These are all sources that can keep producing energy indefinitely without being used up.

Renewable Raw Materials search for term

A renewable raw material is any material that is replenishable and replenished on some reasonable time scale. Renewable material sources include, but are not limited to wood, grass fibers, plant-based plastics, fuels and 100 percent recycled content metals, papers, plastics and glass.

Resource Effectiveness/Material Intensity search for term

Refers to the concept of continuously improving the utility and durability of the product or service provided while reducing its total material and energy throughput such as the use of less energy, the generation of less waste, and the use of less mass per unit produced.

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Safe Exposure Levels search for term

Are set by the Occupational Health and Safety Administration for a variety of solvents. Check OSHA.gov for more information to your specific chemical exposure level.

Scientific Certification Systems search for term

SCS builds their own standards and acts as an independent third party verifier for a variety of certification programs. Examples of verification include: Recycled and Material Content, Biodegradable, No added formaldehyde, FSC Chain of Custody, and Pesticide Free.

SFI - Sustainable Forestry Initiative search for term

A program to certify forests to insure they are being managed in a sustainable manner. An initiative by participating forest products companies to practice a land stewardship ethic that integrates the managing, growing, nurturing, and harvesting of trees for useful products with the conservation of soil, air, and water quality, wildlife, and fish habitat and aesthetics (American Forest and Paper Association 1995).

Significant Environmental Aspect search for term

A significant aspect is an environmental aspect that has or can have significant environmental impact.

SMART search for term

SMART Sustainable Furniture Certification is a transparent, consensus, quantified sustainable furniture and carpet standards developed through an American National Standards Institute Accredited Process. They have been approved for LEED credit, are part of the American Institute of Architects 2015 Imperative to Stop Irreversible Dangerous Climate Change, and part of the Capital Markets Partnership requirements for sustainable mortgage backed securities; California Gold Carpet Standard has been adopted by the State for all government purchasing. Sustainable furniture products and carpet have been certified. See: http://mts.sustainableproducts.com/SMaRT_product_standard.html. Some of requirements of SMART Sustainable Furniture Certification are: Show that 100% of wood products (based on percentage of inventory) are FSC certified or a demonstrated equivalent. * Show that 76-100% of products using materials other than wood (based on percentage of inventory) are made with recycled or bio-based materials. * Based on an ISO 14025 Compliant LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) or actual data. * Credit for pollution reductions from an established baseline for both the manufacturing and supplier facilities. * Have in place an independent 3rd party audited manufacturer and supplier social equity code of conduct for all suppliers. * Toxic Stockholm Chemical elimination for manufacturers and suppliers as specified by international treaty * VOC and carcinogenic VOC emission reductions * Toxic and other air, water and waste pollution reductions

Social Equity search for term

Involves the identification of issues, the development of standards and the implementation of programs that address corporate responsibility for the ethical treatment of employees, communities and other stakeholders.

Social Management System (SMS) search for term

A management system to encompass the conscious management of interactions between an organization and its social environment (Social Management Systems, 2007)

Solar Heating search for term

heat from the sun is absorbed by collectors and transferred by pumps or fans to a storage unit for later use or to the house interior directly. Controls regulating the operation are needed. Or the heat can be transferred to water pumps for hot water.

Source Reduction search for term

refers to any change in the design, manufacture, purchase, or use of materials or products (including packaging) to reduce their amount or toxicity before they become municipal solid waste. Source reduction also refers to the reuse of products or materials.
(Also see dematerialization)

Specialty Sleep Association search for term

a non-profit association promoting the full spectrum of new technology bedding. SSA members are retailers, manufacturers and suppliers that develop, manufacture, market and sell innovative, new-technology mattress and bedding products including: visco-elastic memory foam beds; latex rubber beds; airbeds; flotation beds; gel beds; adjustable beds; futons and convertible beds; beds made from soy, bamboo, wool, 100% cotton; and bed frames. SSA’s Environmental & Safety Program is a manufacturer self-declaration and labeling program designed to help consumers understand the environmental and safety attributes of mattresses. Participating manufacturers must display a “Consumer Disclosure Label” (CDL) describing the contents of components in percentages by weight and providing additional information about environmental claims made by the manufacturer.

substantiation of claims search for term

providing back up for marketing claims that may include using competent and reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the expertise of professionals in the relevant area, conducted and evaluated in an objective manner by persons qualified to do so, using procedures generally accepted in the profession to yield accurate and reliable results.
Source: FTC’s Green Guides, 16 C.R.F. § 260.5.

Sulfur dioxide search for term

SO2 is a heavy, smelly gas which can be condensed into a clear liquid. It's used to make sulfuric acid, bleaching agents, preservatives and refrigerants and a major source of air pollution.

Supplier Code of Conduct search for term

The release of gases, liquids and/or solids from any process or industry. Liquid emissions are commonly referred to as effluents.

Supply Chain (also Supply System) search for term

The different steps through which wood and paper-based products go from being harvested to an end product.

Sustainability, Sustainable Practices, Sustainable Development search for term

This refers to efforts by industry to achieve sustainable development goals that call for simultaneous performance improvements in economic vitality; ecological integrity; and social equity.
Also,
as a widely accepted definition, the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 said sustainability means, “Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

sustainable search for term

1. practices that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Source: Brundtland Report, World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987;
2. General environmental claim used by some marketers to promote the environmental attributes of a product.
See also: general environmental claims.

Sustainable Business Codes search for term

Refers to any voluntary business code of conduct or code of practice that calls for simultaneous improvements in economic, environmental, and social performance.

sustainable footprint search for term

injuries, illnesses, incidents, waste, emissions, use of water and deplete-able forms of raw materials and energy

sustainable forest management search for term

a set of processes and practices that permits the goods and services derived from the forest to meet present-day needs while at the same time securing their continued availability and contribution to long-term development.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Examples of forest certification programs include American Tree Farm System (ATFS), Canadian Standards Association (CSA), Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI), and the Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)

Sustainable Furnishings Council search for term

A green furnishings organization, Sustainable Furnishings Council (SFC is a nonprofit coalition of suppliers, manufacturers, retailers, and designers formed to promote sustainable practices within the furnishings industry. In 2008, SFC launched a public advertising and in-store tagging program for consumers to identify retailers and products that exceed SFC threshold sustainability standards. SFC maintains three levels: Standard for retailers and manufacturers committed to improve their sustainability performance, Exemplary for retailers and manufacturers meeting or exceeding proven levels of performance, and the Designer specifically aimed at furniture designers. The Exemplary Level addresses: reducing Stockholm chemicals throughout supply chain; life cycle certification; reuse and end of life management; social equity; independent third party audited Social Equity Supplier Conduct; educational content for climate change; use of Green-e certified renewable energy; tree-free approach to all documents; recycling and reduced packaging; and innovation credits.

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Textile Exchange (TE) search for term

founded in 2002, Textile Exchange (formerly Organic Exchange or OE) facilitates expansion of the global organic cotton and sustainable fiber supply and marketplace by working closely with the entire value chain, from farmers and textile suppliers to retailers and consumers. OE created two standards to help assure consumers that the organic fiber in a finished product came from an organic farm. OE 100 is for products that want to claim the volume of cotton fiber in a product is at least 95% organic. OE Blended was created to encourage use of some organic product even when a majority of the product is non-organic cotton fiber or traditional fiber. OE Blended certifies the percentage of organic cotton fiber in a product. For OE Blended, the finished product must have at least 5% of organic cotton to be certified.

Third-Party Certification search for term

A form of certification in which the producer's claim of conformity is validated, as part of a specific program, by a technically and otherwise competent body other than one controlled by the producer or buyer. The third party certifier performs an audit specific to the certification program to ensure that the producer's claims are valid.

Toxic Stockholm Chemical search for term

The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, (signed in Stockholm, May 23, 2001) is intended to eliminate or restrict the production, use and/or release of twelve chemicals that, due to their persistence in the environment, can affect human health throughout the globe, regardless of the location of their use. The twelve chemicals include; pesticides (Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Heptachlor, Hexachlorobenzene, Dieldrin, Mirex, Toxaphene), industrial products (PCBs, polychlorinated biphenyls) and byproducts, i.e., unintentionally formed chemicals (polychlorinated dioxins and furans).

Traceability search for term
The ability to identify and trace the history, distribution, location and application of products, parts and materials, to ensure the reliability of sustainability claims, in the areas of human rights,
labor (including health and safety), the environment and anti-corruption.
Tree-Free Approach search for term

The first step in a tree-free approach is to work towards eliminating paperwork and the quantity of copies we must make. Beyond that, a tree-free approach means using paper from non-wood sources. The production of tree-free paper uses less water, no chlorine or harmful chemicals, & requires less energy. Tree-Free uses paper from sources like kenaf, sugar cane, and bamboo, as well as from post-consumer recycled paper.

Triple Bottom Line search for term

Sustainable development involves the simultaneous pursuit of economic vitality; ecological integrity; and social equity. Companies aiming for sustainability need to perform not against a single, financial bottom line, but against the triple bottom line.

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UL Environment search for term

UL Environment supports the growth and development of sustainable products, services and organizations in the global marketplace through standards development, educational services, and independent third-party assessment and certification. Specific UL Environment services include environmental claims validation, sustainable products certification, energy efficiency certification, environmental product declarations, and advisory services.

unqualified claims search for term

express, implied, or general environmental claims about a product that are not specific.
Source: Proposed Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 63,552 at V(A)4, p. 44, Oct. 15, 2010 , “FTC’s Proposed Revisions to Green Guides.”
See also: general environmental claims

Unwanted Sources search for term

In addition to illegal logging, a number of controversial sources of wood including: protected areas or forests that have been proposed for national parks but have not yet been formally protected; forests deemed to be special places; forests where there are serious tenure disputes, particularly where these involve the failure to respect the customary rights of indigenous or local people; forests that are inappropriate converted to other land uses (Nussbaum and Simula, 2005).

USGBC - U.S. Green Building Council search for term

The U.S. Green Building Council is a 501(c)(3) non-profit community of leaders working to make green buildings available to everyone within a generation. Founded in 1993, it promotes sustainability in how buildings are designed, built and operated. The USGBC is best known for the development of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system and Greenbuild, a green building conference that promotes the green building industry, including environmentally responsible materials, sustainable architecture techniques and public policy.

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VOC - Volatile Organic Compounds search for term

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors. VOCs are emitted by a wide array of products numbering in the thousands. Examples include: paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings, office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper, graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions. Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Paints, varnishes, and wax all contain organic solvents, as do many cleaning, disinfecting, cosmetic, degreasing, and hobby products. Fuels are made up of organic chemicals. All of these products can release organic compounds while you are using them, and, to some degree, when they are stored

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waste-to-energy search for term

the practice of processing waste products to generate steam, heat, or electricity.
(Also see energy recovery)

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